Culture Of Bolivia
The daily life of the Indians of Bolivia and their material culture have many features preserved from ancient times. Quechua Indians live in small houses made of Adobe, windowless, with earthen floor and roof, covered with grass capital. Near the houses, behind a low fence of stone, usually located arable land. On the foothills and hills to hold the precious water is used terracing and conduct of the transverse grooves.
Clothes in Quechua in our day are basically in factory production, but they wear homespun and things. Primary affiliation outerwear men-Quechua is the cloak — poncho, made of two rectangular panels of heavy wool. In cold weather the men wear knitted woolen beanie hats, chullo. The women are of Quechua on top of a long shirt, several wide and long skirts, one shorter than the other, so that a bright fringe bottom skirt is visible from under the top. Conventional women’s hat — the bowler hat.
The spinning and weaving of wool fabrics is one of the main crafts of the Quechua people. The Indians, following a caravan of lamas or to the mine, behind the brightly-striped scarf hangs often child, and in front of belt almost always sticks out the flyer with wool and sometimes cotton, which is braided thread. The resulting yarn is dyed before making fabric. Fabric with beautiful and bright combinations of colors are woven from the Indians Quechua, and Aymara,by hand on primitive horizontal machines with wooden or bone pegs. They are produced for own consumption and for sale.
Aymara small houses made of Adobe, turf blocks, and sometimes of reed mats according to the layout of rectangular or square and do not have Windows. Roofs covered with reed or grass capital. The floor is earth, stamped down. The hearth is heated in a black way. As a rule, is home Aymara do not have even the most primitive of furniture. In the past they have covered the bowls with Lamium fat and a wick made of llama wool. Currently dominated by kerosene lamps. House in the North of the Altiplano, as a rule, fundamentalnye and comfortable dwellings of the Central and southern plateau. Some have wooden floors.
Clothes of the Aymara and Quechua, are now mostly manufactured, although you can see the colorful, multi-colored homespun of the product. Men wear trousers, shirt and waistcoat, summer walk in straw and winter Fedora hats and leather sandals. In extreme cold sometimes wearing a headdress of the ancient Aymara — gorro similar to woolen helmet-culo Quechua. Women Aymara wear wide skirts and jackets, over which throw a shawl. A constant attribute of their clothes — top hats. Unlike men they go to any time of the year barefoot. From crafts in Aymara there is a widespread manufacture of ceramics, silver jewelry, and weaving, weaving nets, mats and baskets.
Women knit wool gorro, shirts, belts, etc. Aymara have preserved a centuries-old cultural and ethnic characteristics of their ancestors, but also their commitment to agriculture and cattle raising. Nutrition Aymara and Quechua is the potato, produce chunjo — starch product composition similar to potato flour. Chuno can be stored for many years. For manufacturing potato week soaked in water; then with 10 days left in the open air, where it warms up in the afternoon sunlight, and at night it freezes, gradually softening. Then he kicks a stone or press water is squeezed out, after which it is dried for three to four weeks, until they become a solid product. Cuneo saves Indians from famine in the winter of droughts and nedorogo.
Before the arrival of the Spaniards on the Altiplano has been cultivated 240 kinds of potatoes. And now the potatoes along with quinoa and millet — the staple food of Indians. Here you can see the potatoes black, purple, red, white and yellow. The cultivation of quinoa that looks like a Russian quinoa, is especially characteristic of the South, the most arid parts of the Altiplano. It is the most ancient bread culture of the Andean highlands. Leaf prepare a soup, grains — porridge and alcoholic drink chicha (although, as a rule, this drink is made from corn).
The prices for food in Bolivia is very high and a significant portion of the population consumes almost no meat, butter, milk, limiting potatoes and various vegetables. Constant hunger inhibit the cud of Coca leaves. Coca leaves in Bolivia is still the top seller. They are chewed, mixed with ashes or lime. Coca suppresses hunger and artificially excites man. That’s why Coca — daily “bread” of the Indians, who are accustomed to chewing for a long time. Consume a lot of Coca Indians working in the mines. Work in deep, poorly equipped mines, in conditions of high sparseness of the atmosphere are extremely heavy. To withstand the inhuman conditions of labour, the miners almost all the time chewing dried Coca leaves. From hard work and constant use of the drug they’re already on 30 — 35 years old become disabled and few of them live up to 40 years. Widespread infectious diseases, malaria, dysentery, tuberculosis, which particularly affected the American Indian population living in unsanitary conditions and suffer from chronic malnutrition.
Medical care in the country is underdeveloped. Many rural areas have almost no medical staff, and their residents have to use the services of traditional healers. The cost of treatment is so great that in the cities a significant part of the population resorts to traditional medicine. Representatives of one of the small Indian tribes— Kallawaya dwelling to the North-East of Titicaca, from time immemorial was known as the best healers were healers and even the Incas. Passing their knowledge on medicinal properties of herbs from father to son, they perform the role of doctors serving the Indians of Bolivia. In La Paz behind the old Cathedral of St. Francis there is a quarter where healers treat Kallawaya.