Ethical principles of the ancient medicine
Historical sources tells us the information that for the first time some of the social function of the doctor introduced a social reformer Pharaoh Akhenaten of Egypt (15th century BC). He took some social functions of the priests and gave them to the doctors. That he exalted doctors and the fact that it appeared international medical sign – bowl entwined snake. The token can be decrypted so: be wise as a serpent and draw knowledge from the Cup of the universe. The ruins of some cities in Egypt bears witness to order the sequence of surgical operations, treatment of physical and mental disorders. After Akhenaten’s death the priests asserted his authority over the doctors, directing them to their rituals.
It’s been hundreds of years (the Millennium), and only with the advent of Hippocrates (C. 460-377 BCE) there were clear outlines of social medicine, which can be seen in the Hippocratic oath, where special attention is paid to moral and ethical characteristics of the doctor. Important socio-psychological step was the allocation of Hippocrates temperament types (sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic, melancholic). Today apply the concepts of Hippocrates mask, headband – hat of Hippocrates.
Hippocrates worshipped the God of healing Asclepius (the Roman name Aesculapius) and put forward the position that Asclepius is stronger than death. From here developed the position that the doctor should never stop fighting for the life of the patient, and fight for it until biological death – the onset of lividity, which is preceded by respiratory arrest and cardiac activity, set on pulse.
From the experience of Sparta Hippocrates borrowed the ideas of promoting a healthy lifestyle. These ideas were promoted by the state, and the offenders died. Hippocrates taught following these rules consciously. In a set of these rules included: moderation in food and sex, daily physical and mental exercise, abstinence from alcohol, drugs, dancing, etc. Hippocrates gave great importance to the psychological impact of the doctor on the patient. Required healthy appearance, cleanliness, appropriate clothing. He, addressing the doctor, said, “You’re going to heal men, and he’s covered in stinking scab”. Today it is necessary to remind the medical kurzem, fans of alcohol. Not least among the healers of souls – psychologists.
Medical ethics is one of the most advanced types of applied ethics for millennia, sought to regulate the complex relationship arising between doctors and patients, experiencing suffering and in need of special care and attention, and often, not only in treating the disease, but also in saving lives.
The Creator of the medical ethics – the great Hippocrates formulated the basic principles of behaviour of the doctor in “the Hippocratic oath”.
The relationship doctor-patient always wore dramatic in nature, not due to their symmetry: the doctor has knowledge and authority, the patient trusts him the most valuable thing he has (his life). That is why these relations should be strictly regulated by morals and law.
Medical ethics is a set of interrelated individual and social principles, designed to influence the actions of the doctor. The doctor typically has always been regarded as a top face when making decisions about what the patient for his own good (principle of paternalism), treatment strategy (medical secret).
Paternalism is such a model of relations, when the doctor speaks to the patient not only as a loving father, but as king and God, for in his hands the life, health, freedom, usefulness, and the happiness of man.
The content of professional medical ethics is determined by such principles as “useful”, “do no harm”, “to inspire confidence in the patient,” that is, directed on regulation of activity of the doctor and is called “medical deontology”.
Medicine is a field that requires a high level of professionalism and suggests a clear system of ethical principles.
At the individual level of medical ethics include professional autonomy and physician beneficence.
Professional autonomy is the right to determine the course of treatment without interference from others. It is limited the right of a patient to information about their health. A favor by the best known position of “Hippocratic oath” is the professional duty of a physician to assist others if necessary. In the framework of medical ethics need to find a balance between kindness and the prevention of further harm (for example, the need to stop the pain). This ethical dialogue between the principle of benefit and prevention of harm is sometimes seen as the opposition to the sanctity of life and quality of life.
You can highlight the main provisions of the Hippocratic oath:
1. The expression “Respect for life”
2. The prohibition on causing harm to the patient
3. Respect for the individual patient
4. Patient confidentiality
5. Respect for the profession
Today the main focus of medical ethics is compliance with the doctor of their duties to patients, to other doctors, the relatives and friends of the patient.
These responsibilities can be summarized as follows:
a) to provide all those in need professional help;
b) do it with a sense of compassion and respect for human dignity;
C) maintain patient confidentiality; to make decisions based on the principle of paternalism;
g) do no harm;
d) honestly to their colleagues and to gain exposure for those physicians who resort to deception and cheating;
e) improve their knowledge;
g) do not conduct experiments on humans ( prisoners);
h) to provide medical services to prisoners the same quality as others;
I) not to accept the active or passive complicity in torture or other cruel or degrading activities;
K) do not participate in the procedures of body nature against the prisoner or detainee.